The material in this workbook is related to the past paper-based TOEFL test.

The materials used in this book were taken from actual test forms given to examinees at two worldwide test administrations.

Some reading materials have been adapted from previously published articles or books. To make these materials suitable for testing purposes, the length and wording may have been altered somewhat.

The ideas expressed in the reading and listening materials contained in this publication do not necessarily represent the opinion of the TOEFL  Board of Educational Testing Service (ETS).

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